There's good evidence that many vertebral disk disorders are due to atherosclerosis blocking arteries and nutrient circulation.
Kauppila, 2009. Atherosclerosis and disc degeneration/low-back pain–a systematic review. European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, 37(6), pp.661-670.
Penttinen, 1994. Back pain and risk of fatal ischaemic heart disease: 13 year follow up of Finnish farmers. Bmj, 309(6964), pp.1267-1278.
Kurunlahti, 1999. Association of atherosclerosis with low back pain and the degree of disc degeneration. Spine, 24(20), p.2080.
Kurunlahti et al, 2001. Correlation of diffusion in lumbar intervertebral disks with occlusion of lumbar arteries: a study in adult volunteers. Radiology, 221(3), pp.779-786.
Longo et al, 2011. Symptomatic disc herniation and serum lipid levels. European Spine Journal, 20(10), pp.1658-1662.
There are diets known to reverse coronary atherosclerosis, namely a very-low fat whole plant based (vegan) diet. See the books by Drs. Dean Ornish or Caldwell Esselstyn for details. However I haven't seen any research on whether these diets might also improve lower back pain, the closest is this short-term complex intervention that included vegetarian diet:
Tekur, 2012. A comprehensive yoga programs improves pain, anxiety and depression in chronic low back pain patients more than exercise: an RCT. Complementary therapies in medicine, 20(3), pp.107-118.